The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (English: List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious, and therefore banned by the Catholic Church.
The first version was promulgated by Pope Paul IV in 1559, but lasted less than a year, because criticism of some aspects prevented its acceptance. It was replaced by what was called the Tridentine Index (because authorized at the Council of Trent).
The 20th and final edition appeared in 1948, and the Index was formally abolished on this day in history by Pope Paul VI.
Authors whose works appeared on the list included both those who were burned at the stake for their writings, and those who were later beatified by the Catholic Church.
You can search or browse the list of all books that were included over the years on the list here.