On this day in history, John Arthur (“Jack”) Johnson (“The Galveston Giant”), the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion, was arrested on the grounds that his relationship with Lucille Cameron (who later became his second wife) violated the White Slave Traffic Act (also known as the Mann Act).
As originally passed in 1910, The Mann Act made it a felony to engage in interstate or foreign commerce transport of “any woman or girl for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose.” Its primary stated intent was to address prostitution, “immorality”, and human trafficking particularly where it was trafficking for the purposes of prostitution.
Ms. Cameron refused to testify against Johnson. The Assistant U.S. District Attorney asked the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation (forerunner of the FBI) to mount an all-out effort to find any evidence at all that Johnson had violated the Mann Act. They soon found a prostitute named Belle Gifford a.k.a. Belle Schrebier willing to testify against Johnson, and within days, a grand jury issued seven Mann Act indictments.
In the courtroom of Kenesaw Mountain Landis, the future Commissioner of Baseball who perpetuated the baseball color line until his death, Johnson was convicted by an all-white jury in June 1913. It took them less than two hours to find Johnson guilty on all counts. Despite the fact that the incidents used to convict Johnson took place before passage of the Mann Act, he was sentenced to a year and a day in prison.
On June 24, while out on bail pending appeal, Johnson fled the country, returning to the U.S. seven years later. He surrendered to Federal agents at the Mexican border and was sent to the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth to serve his sentence.
On June 10, 1946, Johnson died in a car crash on U.S. Highway 1 in North Carolina, after racing angrily from a diner that refused to serve him. He was 68 years old at the time of his death.