In January 1848, gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in the Sierra Nevada foothills about 40 miles east of Sacramento – beginning the California Gold Rush. The word spread slowly though, and it wasn’t until the beginning of 1849 that large numbers of gold seekers (known as “Forty-Niners”) began to arrive from across the U.S. and from other continents. Some 250,000 people arrived in five years – mostly male, and half younger than thirty. As late as 1880 males still outnumbered females two to one. But there were places to find women, such as in the brothels of San Francisco’s “Barbary Coast.” San Francisco, a hastily built wooden town, burned to the ground five times between 1849 and 1851.
Some of these Forty-Niners met in Monterey and petitioned for statehood, but Congress was deadlocked over how to apportion the territories acquired during the Mexican-American War between slave and free states. A year after their petition, Californians were finally given official statehood as part of the Compromise of 1850. (This was a package of five bills drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and promoted by young Democratic Senatory Stephen Douglas that included admission of California as a free state. It also strengthened the Fugitive Slave Act, the enforcement of which further inflamed the tension between North and South. You can see a list of all the provisions of the Compromise here.)
One of the earliest settlers in California was Agoston Haraszthy, a refugee from the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He imported some 200,000 cuttings of varietal grapes by mail, destined for Napa, Sonoma, and Santa Clara counties. (Years earlier he had tried planting grapes in Wisconsin.)
He first tried to raise grapes in San Francisco but found the climate too foggy. Next he tried San Mateo County, again unsuccessfully. In the meanwhile, he began a business to refine gold. In 1857 he was indicted for embezzlement but was eventually exonerated. While the investigation was pending, he moved to Sonoma, bought a vineyard northeast of town, and renamed it Buena Vista. Today, still in operation, it is the oldest commercial winery in California.
Gradually Californians added other institutions besides prostitution and drinking. Jesuit universities in Santa Clara and San Francisco opened in the 1850’s. Governor Frederick Low (in office from 1863 to 1867) favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, and in 1867, he suggested a merger of the existing private College of California in Berkeley (chartered in 1855) with the proposed state university. The Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was signed into law by Governor Henry H. Haight (Low’s successor) on March 23, 1868. The university opened in September 1869 with ten faculty members and nearly forty students using the former College of California’s buildings in Oakland as a temporary home while the new campus underwent construction. In 1871, the Board of Regents ruled that women should be admitted on an equal basis with men. When the Berkeley location was ready for occupancy, 167 male and 222 female students attended.
Stanford opened in 1891, founded by a former governor and U.S. senator Leland Stanford and his wife in memory of their son, Leland Stanford, Jr., who died of typhoid two months before his 16th birthday. By 1899, women were enrolling in growing numbers. Concerned that the institution named for her son would become largely a girls’ school, Jane Stanford amended the Founding Grant to limit enrollment to 500 females, or 40 percent of the student body. The stipulation was not eliminated until 1973.