On this day in history, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt unveiled his Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, which proposed adding one new judge to the federal judical system for every active judge over the age of seventy. The result would create fifty new judgeships, including up to six new Supreme Court justices.
Roosevelt had been frustrated with the US Supreme Court’s treatment of some of his economic reforms. During his first term, the Supreme Court had struck down several New Deal measures intended to bolster economic recovery during the Great Depression. The President’s plan would allow him to appoint new judges friendly to his administration, although FDR couched it in terms suggesting that he was trying to streamline the Court system and ease its caseload.
The plan caused an uproar from legislators, bar associations, and the public. The Senate Judiciary Committee held hearings on the bill, and subsequently failed to report it favorably out of committee.
The full Senate began debating the measure in July, but FDR suffered a major setback when a key supporter died of a heart attack. The bill eventually passed in a greatly amended version which did not include the provision to increase the number of Supreme Court justices.
Nevertheless, FDR managed to get what he wanted eventually by serving twelve years in office, which enabled him to appoint eight justices to the Court.
You can listen to FDR’s “fireside chat” on March 9, 1937 in which he discusses the court packing proposal, here.